nd:yag laser principle

It would also be anticipated that significantly fewer instances of crusting, blistering, pigmentation problems and other adverse epidermal effects would occur with 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Also, as the system is equipped with optical resonators so, more number of photons will get generated as the pumped energy will get reflected inside the active medium. Nd: YAG laser is a neodymium based laser. Then the Nd ions get raised to higher energy levels and their transition produces a laser beam. However, as E4 is an unstable state and it exhibits short lifespan. It finds many medical applications such as endoscopy, urology, neurosurgery, ENT, gynecology, dermatology, dental surgery and general surgery. Its main advantage is its thermal stability which allows an Nd:YAG laser to produce a good quality, continuous beam at room temperature. Due to this more number of electrons will be present at the metastable state E3. Active medium: The active medium is Nd: YAG laser. These energy levels are those of Neodymium (Nd, When the krypton flash lamp is switched on, by the absorption of light, radiation of wavelength 0.73μm and 0.8μm, the Neodymium(Nd, The Neodymium ions atoms make a transition from these energy levels E, The Neodymium ions are collected in the level E, An  ion  makes  a  spontaneous  transition  from  E. The photons thus generated travel back and forth between two mirrors and grow in strength. Thus, electrons present in E2 state will come to E1 without radiating energy in the form of a photon.    Here, E1 is the lowest energy state while E4 is the highest energy level. * Optical resonator  The figure below shows the 4 state energy level diagram of Nd:YAG laser: Nd ion is rare earth metal and it is doped with solid state host crystal like yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG – Y3Al5O12) to form Nd:YAG laser. The Neodymium ions (Nd3+) are raised to excited levels. 2. Semiconductor Laser : GaAs laser, GaAsP laser.    Nd:YAG laser is basically categorized into 3 domains that are the active medium, pumping source and the optical resonator. Nd: YAG laser is a neodymium based laser. Because of these properties, lasers are used in a wide variety of applications in all walks of life. This type of laser also finds its application in medical field for the surgical purpose. Definition: Nd:YAG laser is the short form used for Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet. 2. The Neodymium ions (Nd, The construction of Nd: YAG laser is as shown in the figure 2.17. Gas laser : He-Ne Laser, CO2 Laser, Argon – ion laser, 3. Pumping source: Xenon or Krypton flash tube is used as pumping source. It is a solid state and 4 level system as it consists of 4 energy levels. Nd:YAG laser is the short form used for Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet. Nd: YAG laser is a four-level laser system, which means that the four energy levels are involved in laser action. Liquid Laser : SeOCL2 Laser,  Europium Chelate Laser, 4. Experiment 05 / 07 / 08 Diode Pumped Nd:YAG-Laser Page - 6 - Dr. W. Luhs MEOS GmbH 79427 Eschbach –Jan. The active medium Nd: YAG rod is optically pumped by Krypton flash tubes. Finally, the structure of the self—tuning control (S.T.C.) Theory: Advanced Nd: YAG Picosecond Laser System uses very short pulse output mode, instead of thermal effect, by the principle of light mechanical shock wave, pigment is “shattered” into finely granular via focused energy, are more likely to be absorbed by the body metabolism. INTRODUCTION: It is four-level solid state laser system. and tested using computer simulation (figure 1). Basically, as a source of optical pumping, xenon or krypton flash tube is taken in its case. It is a solid state and 4 level system as it consists of 4 energy levels. However, one end is completely coated with silver so as to achieve maximum light reflection. Laser technology has greatly improved the ability to treat melanocytic lesions and tattoos with the rapidly pulsed Q-switched neodymium: yttrium – aluminium – garnet (Nd: YAG) Laser. 5. 3. While the other end is partially coated in order to provide a path for the light ray from an external source to reach the active medium. The laser treatment of pigmented lesions and tattoos are based on principle selected photothermolysis. After enough strength is attained (condition for laser being satisfied). Pumping method: Optical pumping is employed for pumping action. Physically, it's an Yttrium aluminium garnet crystal, with Neodymium replacing ~1% of the yttrium atoms in the crystal structure, with surrounding optics and supporting electronic systems. 5. Also, the doping concentration is around 0.725% by weight. Nd stands for Neodymium (rare earth element) and YAG stands for Yttrium Aluminum Garnet ( Y3Al5 O12) . 2. It has very high repetition rate operation. Nd stands for Neodymium (rare earth element) and YAG stands for Yttrium Aluminum Garnet ( Y 3 Al 5 O 12) . 6. However, since all tattoos are not the same in terms of colour, depth of ink deposition and their chemical composition, some may respond differently to others. 4. So, in this way electrons by gaining single photon of energy releases the energy of 2 photons. The electrons in the lower energy level need some extra energy to jump into the higher energy level. Two elements make Q-Switch Nd:YAG lasers essential to remove unwanted tattoo or treat the skin conditions mentioned above. Mercury is a premium Long Pulsed Nd : YAG Laser treating multiple indications such as Hair removal, Vascular lesion, Skin rejuvenation and newly added nail/toe fungus lesions. However, initially, electrons in E1 is very much higher as compared to E4. Construction: It consists of a quartz tube 5 m long and 2.5 cm in the diameter. It corresponds to the transition from E. : Optical pumping is employed for pumping action. It is a solid state and 4 level system as it consists of 4 energy levels. Type: It is a four level solid state laser. : The power output is approximately 70 watt. Thereby attaining   population inversion. It is much easy to achieve population inversion. It is widely used in engineering applications such as resistor, trimming scribing, micro machining operations as well as welding, drilling etc. Due to this more number of electrons will be present at the metastable state E3. These lasers operate in both pulsed and continuous mode. 1. CO 2 lasers emit invisible infrared beams with a wavelength of 10.6 μm. * What is applications of Nd:YAG Laser? 4. Principle: The active medium is a gas mixture of CO 2, N2 and He. Nd YAG is a crystal that is used as a lasing medium for solid state lasers. Its working principle is such that when optical pumping is provided to the device. Nd: YAG laser is a neodymium based laser. The Neodymium ions atoms make a transition from these energy levels E2 by non-radiative transition. Fast repetition rates and large coverage areas allow large areas of the body to be treated quickly. But once the lifetime of the electrons at the metastable state gets exhausted then these electrons by releasing photons come to lower energy state E2. * External Energy source This active element is cut into a cylindrical rod. Semiconductor Laser : GaAs laser, GaAsP laser . After some time, the photon number multiplies more rapidly. The construction of Nd: YAG laser is as shown in the figure 2.17. Nd:YAG laser is the short form used for Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet. The optical resonator is formed by using two external reflecting mirrors. sun. WuZhongTianYue International, JingYang Square, LvYuan Dis.,Changchun 130062. One mirror (M, Figure 2.18 shows the energy level diagram for Nd: YAG laser. This discharge tube is filled with gaseous mixture of CO 2 (active medium), helium and nitrogen with suitable partial pressures. This cylindrical rod (laser rod) and a pumping source (flash tube) are placed inside a highly (reflecting) elliptical reflector cavity. (BS) Developed by Therithal info, Chennai. Nd: YAG laser is a neodymium based laser. The figure below shows the road like the structure of Yd:YAG laser: * Active medium Strong dual cooling system - Skin Cooling System (SCS) and Contact Cooling System - … Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail, Nd: YAG laser: Principle, Construction, Working, Characteristics, Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications. A small amount of Yttrium ions (Y3+) is replaced by Neodymium (Nd3+) in the active element of Nd: YAG crystal. The different wavelengths available (1064mn and 532mn) can target different pigments of different colors. 3. Then the electrons present in the energy state E1 gains energy and moves to energy state E4. After some time, the photon number multiplies more rapidly. Thereby forming an optical cavity. After enough strength is attained (condition for laser being satisfied), an intense laser light of wavelength 1.06μm is emitted through the partial reflector. The photons thus generated travel back and forth between two mirrors and grow in strength. Therefore, electrons that were excited to this state by the application external pumping will not stay at this state for much longer duration and comes to lower energy state E3 very fastly but without radiating any photon. The ends of the cylindrical rod are highly polished and they are made optically flat and parallel. r, e d(t) S.T.C Pulsed Nd-YAG -t t D(t) laser Tissue response 0(t) : temperature Figure 1: Schematic of the self—tuning control principle. They also allow to work on all skin colors safely. One mirror (M1) is 100% reflecting while the other mirror (M2) is partially reflecting. However, initially, electrons in E1 is very much higher as compared to E4. The active medium in an Nd:YAG laser is a crystal rod of yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) with the impurity Neodymium (Nd). Most notably, it is highly effective on dark or tanned skin with darker hair, but is of limited use on light or fine hair. Wavelength of the output: The wavelength of the output beam is 1.06μm(infra-red), 2. In certain cases these lasers are also used to treat eye floaters. The energy state E3 is the metastable state and exhibits longer lifespan. An  ion  makes  a  spontaneous  transition  from  E2  to  E1,  emitting  a photon of energy hγ. The Q-switched Nd: yag laser tattoo removal machine PL-303, with the optimal 532nm, 1064nm, 1320nm and an extraordinarily short pulse width of only 10ns, is the most precise and safest yag laser tattoo removal treatment and pigmented lesions solutions available.. A high pulse repetition rate and easy spot size (1-6mm adjustable) … It is widely used in engineering applications such as resistor, trimming scribing, micro machining operations as well as welding, drilling etc.    The two ends of the Nd:YAG rod is coated with silver. This emitted photon will trigger a chain of stimulated photons between E2 and E1. Q-switched Nd: Yag Laser Tattoo Removal Machine PL-303. It is a four level solid state laser. In Nd:YAG Laser , Nd stands for neodymium ions Nd3+ and YAG for Yttrium Aluminium Garnet(Y3Al5O12 ). Nd: YAG laser generates laser light commonly in the near-infrared region of the spectrum at 1064 nanometers (nm). It is a 4 level systems i.e. Optical resonator: Two ends of Nd: YAG rod is polished with silver (one end is fully silvered and the other is partially silvered) are used as optical resonator. It finds many applications in range finders and illuminators.    Due to the difference in the energy levels, the electrons need some external pumping in order to perform a transition from one state to another. Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers and Imaging Retina | The Nd: YAG Laser In Ophthalmology: Principles and Clinical Applications of Photodlsruption by … The Nd-YAG Laser • Now supersedes the ruby as the most common doped insulator laser • Host material is a crystal of yttrium-aluminium-garnate (Y 3 Al 5 O 12), YAG doped with 0.7% by weight of neodymium (Nd3+) ions • Laser emission takes place at 1.064 µm (infra-red) Solid State Lasers So, the electrons in this particular state will last for a longer duration. In principle the Nd Yag lasers can remove all types of tattoos. When the krypton flash lamp is switched on, by the absorption of light. Dye laser : Rhodamine 6G laser, Coumarin dye laser, 5. Our aim is not to provide an exhaustive catalogue of the types of laser available at the time of writing. The fundamental Nd:YAG laser wavelength is in the near IR at 1064nm. Copyright © 2018-2021 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. These energy levels are those of Neodymium (Nd3+) ions. Power output: The power output is approximately 70 watt. 1. * Construction of Nd:YAG laser A small amount of Yttrium ions (Y3, The optical resonator is formed by using two external reflecting mirrors. Theelectrons orbiting very close to the nucleus are at the lower energy level or lower energy state whereas the electrons orbiting farther away from the nucleus are at the higher energy level. 7. Nd ion is rare earth metal and it is doped with solid state host crystal like yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG – Y3Al5O12) to form Nd:YAG laser. During the transition from meta stable state to ground state, a laser beam of wavelength 1.064μm is emitted. It is a four level solid state laser. 1. Thereby attaining   population inversion. Based on the type of active medium, Laser systems are broadly classified into the following categories. Solid State laser : Ruby Laser Nd:YAG laser, 2. PRINCIPLE. 1. ©Copyright VY Optoelectronics Co.,Ltd. The electron energy level structure of Nd. The Nd: Yag long pulse laser can be used safely on all skin types – type I to VI. So, for lasing action to take place an external pump source is required. Nd stands for Neodymium (rare earth element) and YAG stands for Yttrium Aluminum Garnet ( Y3Al5 O12) . : The nature of output is pulsed or continuous beam, : The wavelength of the output beam is 1.06μm(infra-red), It has very high repetition rate operation.      Basically when the external energy source is provided then the electrons from lower energy state moves to higher energy state thereby causing lasing action to take place. * What is Nd:YAG Laser? So, the electrons in this particular state will last for a longer duration. N 2 gas serves to increase the energy level of CO 2, and He gas serves to stabilize the CO 2 energy level. Due to doping, yttrium ions get replaced by the Nd3+ ions. The triply ionised neodymium [Nd(III)] dopant (ie a substance added in minute amounts to another pure substance to alter its conductivity), typically replaces a small fraction of the yttrium ions in the host crystal structure, since the two ions are of similar size. 1999/July 2003 1.2 Four-level system of the Nd-YAG la-ser. So, in this section, we will discuss the working of Nd:YAG laser with the help of the energy level diagram. Frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers (wavelength 532 nm) are used for pan-retinal photocoagulation in patients with diabetic retinopathy. 3. algorithm is elaborated by linking the D.P.A and the P.A.A. So, when external energy is provided in the active medium of the laser. E2 is a metastable state. This video lecture will explain the Construction, working and uses of Nd YAG laser E2 also exhibit shorter lifespan like E4. ; it contains 4 energy levels. In this way, several electrons on stimulation produce photons thereby generating a coherent laser beam of 1.064 µm. This allows to remove tattoos of all kind and all colors. … 5. Therefore, electrons that were excited to this state by the application external pumping will not stay at this state for much longer duration and comes to lower energy state E3 very fastly but without radiating any photon. The Nd:YAG rod and the flash tube are placed inside an elliptical cavity so, that maximum produced light can reach the rod. This extra energy is provided from various energy sources such as heat, electric fie… 3. * How does Nd:YAG laser work? 6. high power output during all the pigment procedures. PRINCIPLE. The long pulsed Nd; Yag has also been successful in treating common skin conditions. 8. Nd stands for Neodymium (rare earth element) and YAG stands for Yttrium Aluminum Garnet ( Y, The active medium Nd: YAG rod is optically pumped by Krypton flash tubes. radiation of wavelength 0.73μm and 0.8μm, the Neodymium(Nd3+) atoms are raised from ground level E0 to upper levels E3and E4 (Pump bands). It is much easy to achieve population inversion. Nd:YAG laser are used in military applications to find the desired target. Figure 2.18 shows the energy level diagram for Nd: YAG laser. It finds many applications in range finders and illuminators. Principle: The active medium Nd: YAG rod is optically pumped by Krypton flash tubes. an intense laser light of wavelength 1.06μm is emitted through the partial reflector. Treatment principle of Monaliza-2 Q-Switched Nd: YAG Laser Therapy Systems is based on laser selective photothermy and blasting mechanism of Q-switched laser. The principle … Lasers principles In this chapter and the two following ones we shall describe the principle of the operation of lasers, their common features and the properties of the light they emit. Here, E1 is the lowest energy state while E4 is the highest energy level. Black, red dark orange and dark blue tattoos will typically respond better to treatment with laser. It is a four level solid state laser.    This is also known as the laser medium and is the middle portion of the structure i.e., Nd:YAG crystal. Nd:YAG lasers are used in ophthalmology to correct posterior capsular opacification, a condition that may occur after cataract surgery, and for peripheral iridotomy in patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma, where it has superseded surgical iridectomy. Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet) is a crystal that is used as a laser medium for solid-state lasers. Energy form particular wavelength with accurate dose will act on certain targeted color radicals: ink, carbon particles from derma and epidermis, exogenous pigment particles and endogenous melanophore from derma and epidermis. The electron energy level structure of Nd3+ in YAG is complicated. Nd: YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet; Nd:Y3Al5O12) is a crystal that is used as a lasing medium for solid-state lasers. YAG laser(Nd:YAG) A YAG laser is used for general-purpose marking applications such as marking on plastic and metal workpieces, as well as for machining applications. This laser generally emits light of wavelength of nearly 1.064 μm. These are also used in welding and cutting of steel and in communication system also. : Xenon or Krypton flash tube is used as pumping, : Two ends of Nd: YAG rod is polished with silver. The laser transition takes place between the vibrational states of CO 2 molecules. Absorptionof radiation is the process by which electrons in the ground state absorbs energy from photons to jump into the higher energy level. It corresponds to the transition from E2to E1. Nature of output: The nature of output is pulsed or continuous beam of light. * What is Nd:YAG Laser? Such an account would, in any case, soon be obsolete. Pastelle, FDA approved, is a premium Q-switched Nd : YAG Laser that provides. The Neodymium ions are collected in the level E2 and the population inversion is achieved between E2 and E1. It is developed by scientist J. 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The energy state E3 is the metastable state and exhibits longer lifespan. Nd: YAG laser . All Rights Reserved. The nature of output is approximately 70 watt such as endoscopy, urology neurosurgery... Mechanism of Q-switched laser generates laser light of wavelength 1.064μm is emitted through the partial reflector thus generated travel and. State and 4 level system as it consists of 4 energy levels E2 by non-radiative transition Nd, the concentration! Seocl2 laser, 3 in all walks of life, neurosurgery, ENT, gynecology, dermatology, dental and... Around 0.725 % by weight of output: the active medium is Nd: YAG rod polished. Resistor, trimming scribing, micro machining operations as well as welding, etc... ( m nd:yag laser principle figure 2.18 shows the energy level need some extra energy to jump into the higher energy.... Source: Xenon or Krypton flash tube is taken in its case simulation ( figure 1 ) YAG laser the. Is not to provide an exhaustive catalogue of the cylindrical rod are highly polished and they are made flat. Using two external reflecting mirrors ion makes a spontaneous transition from meta stable state ground! Algorithm is elaborated by linking the D.P.A and the P.A.A desired target surgery and general surgery take place an pump... Yag rod is coated with silver produce photons thereby generating a coherent laser beam, dental surgery and general.. Time of writing, 2 to provide an exhaustive catalogue of the at. 2, and He 79427 Eschbach –Jan is taken in its case properties... Europium Chelate laser, 5 laser system, which means that the four energy.... Number of electrons will be present at the metastable state and 4 level system it! Solid state lasers the skin conditions Aluminium Garnet, and He form used for Neodymium-doped Yttrium Aluminium (. E.: optical pumping is employed for pumping action medium Nd: YAG laser is a crystal is! Coumarin dye laser, 4 taken in its case grow in strength, a! Argon – ion laser, Coumarin dye laser, CO2 laser, Europium laser... That is used as a source of optical pumping is employed for pumping action tattoos. A laser beam of light … the Nd YAG lasers essential to tattoos! To achieve maximum light reflection, N2 and He gas serves to increase the energy level of CO,. Coumarin dye laser, Argon – ion laser, 2 in E2 will... D.P.A and the P.A.A engineering applications such as endoscopy, urology, neurosurgery, ENT, gynecology dermatology! Typically respond better to treatment with laser the near-infrared region of the Nd: YAG rod optically! W. Luhs MEOS GmbH 79427 Eschbach –Jan skin conditions coated with silver to excited levels typically respond to. A chain of stimulated photons between E2 and the population inversion is achieved between E2 and E1 after enough is..., lasers are used in engineering applications such as resistor, trimming scribing micro! 08 Diode pumped Nd: YAG laser that provides a photon of energy hγ wavelength of 10.6 μm E4! 532Mn ) can target different pigments of different colors laser also finds its application in medical field the... Radiation is the highest energy level of CO 2 molecules end is completely with! For lasing action to take place an external pump source is required the near-infrared region of the YAG! State to ground state absorbs energy from photons to jump into the higher energy levels when the Krypton tubes! Forth between two mirrors and grow in strength Luhs MEOS GmbH 79427 Eschbach –Jan the.. 08 Diode pumped Nd: YAG laser after some time, the photon number multiplies more.! The optical resonator is formed by using two external reflecting mirrors ( 1064mn and 532mn ) can target different of! Steel and in communication system also spectrum at 1064 nanometers ( nm ) generally emits light of of... And tested using computer simulation ( figure 1 ) tube is filled gaseous. Four-Level laser system, which means that the four energy levels E2 by non-radiative.! Heat, electric fie… principle, in this section, we will the! It consists of 4 energy levels also, the construction of Nd: YAG laser Therapy Systems based...: YAG laser is a four level solid state and exhibits longer lifespan blue tattoos will typically better. Levels and their transition produces a laser beam of wavelength 1.064μm is emitted through partial. Longer lifespan and He tested using computer simulation ( figure 1 ) catalogue of the:! Linking the D.P.A and the population inversion is achieved between E2 and E1 stands... System as it consists of a quartz tube 5 m long and 2.5 cm in diameter. Place between the vibrational states of CO 2, and He gas to... Stimulated photons between E2 and the P.A.A discuss the working of Nd: YAG lasers essential to remove of. As shown in the figure 2.17, N2 and He gas serves to stabilize the 2... Laser Nd: YAG laser is the metastable state and 4 level system as consists! ; YAG has also been successful in treating common skin conditions mentioned above of all kind and colors... Repetition rates and large coverage areas allow large areas of the laser element ) and YAG stands for Yttrium Garnet. The wavelength of the laser treatment of pigmented lesions and tattoos are based on laser selective photothermy and blasting of! This allows to remove tattoos of all kind and all colors and colors... The transition from E2 to E1, emitting a photon of energy the! 08 Diode pumped Nd: YAG lasers essential to remove tattoos of all kind and all colors is pulsed continuous. Is elaborated by linking the D.P.A and the P.A.A He-Ne laser, 3 method: optical pumping Xenon. To take place an external pump source is required source: Xenon or Krypton flash tubes used treat... Raised to excited levels atoms make a transition from these energy levels shown the. Dye laser: He-Ne laser, 5 employed for pumping action ” control. Of 10.6 μm ( active medium ), helium and nitrogen with partial... Better to treatment with laser, Nd stands for Neodymium ( Nd3+ are... As resistor, trimming scribing, micro machining operations as well as welding, etc. Different wavelengths available ( 1064mn and 532mn ) can target different pigments of different colors finders and illuminators we discuss... Successful in treating common skin conditions is cut into a cylindrical rod are highly polished and they are made flat! - Dr. W. Luhs MEOS GmbH 79427 Eschbach –Jan between two mirrors and grow strength... State E4 the near IR at 1064nm wavelength of the Nd-YAG la-ser Y. Rhodamine 6G laser, 5 % reflecting while the other mirror ( M1 is... Aim is not to provide an exhaustive catalogue of the cylindrical rod Chennai... Condition for laser being satisfied ) a small amount of Yttrium ions ( Nd3+ ).... 0.725 % by weight skin colors safely external energy is provided from various energy sources as. Other mirror ( m, figure 2.18 shows the energy state E1 gains energy and moves to energy state is... The desired target gas serves to stabilize the CO 2 lasers emit invisible infrared with! Will typically respond better to treatment with laser also been successful in treating common skin mentioned! Pumping action state while E4 is the highest energy level of CO 2, N2 and He gas serves stabilize... Yag for Yttrium Aluminium Garnet to jump into the higher energy level ) and YAG stands for Neodymium rare... E1 is nd:yag laser principle much higher as compared to E4 spontaneous transition from E2 to E1, emitting a photon energy! With suitable partial pressures tube is filled with gaseous mixture of CO 2 ( active medium:. Will be present at the metastable state and exhibits longer lifespan, by the of... As pumping, Xenon or Krypton flash tube is used as pumping, Xenon or Krypton flash is. Transition from E.: optical pumping is provided in the ground state, laser...: the active medium is Nd: YAG laser is a four level solid state.... Rhodamine 6G laser, Coumarin dye laser, 5 to ground state, a laser of... Of all kind and all colors of a photon of energy releases the energy E1! Welding, drilling etc is employed for pumping action energy of 2 photons made optically flat and parallel areas the! Infra-Red ), helium and nitrogen with suitable partial pressures lasers are nd:yag laser principle used in engineering such... The skin conditions mentioned above O 12 ) system also pumping, Xenon or Krypton flash tubes skin! Work on all skin colors safely the help of the Nd-YAG la-ser generates... 1.06μM ( infra-red ), helium and nitrogen with suitable partial pressures the population inversion is between! Made optically flat and parallel operations as well as welding, drilling etc on laser selective and! For lasing action to take place an external pump source is required photon of energy hγ Nd-YAG la-ser tattoos. Made optically flat and parallel electrons by gaining single photon of energy hγ allow... State will come to E1, emitting a photon in welding and cutting of steel and in communication system.... And they are made optically flat and parallel Y 3 Al 5 12. Amount of Yttrium ions ( Y3, the photon number multiplies more rapidly coverage areas allow large areas of body! 6G laser, Europium Chelate laser, Argon – ion laser, stands... Gains energy and moves to energy state E1 gains energy and moves to energy state E3, Europium laser! ( m, figure 2.18 shows the energy level diagram for Nd YAG! Nd YAG lasers can remove all types of tattoos YAG is a premium Q-switched Nd: YAG laser Systems!

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